If testosterone deficiency occurs during foetal development, then masculinisation of the foetus will fail to occur normally and this may give rise to disorders of sex development. If testosterone deficiency occurs during puberty, a boy’s growth may slow and no growth spurt will be seen. The child may also fail to develop full sexual characteristics (hypogonadism) associated with men undergoing puberty, including development of pubic hair, growth of the penis and testes and deepening of the voice. Around the time of puberty, boys with too little testosterone may also have less than normal strength and endurance, and their arms and legs may continue to grow out of proportion with the rest of their body.
Other side effects include increased risk of heart problems in older men with poor mobility, according to a 2009 study at Boston Medical Center. A 2017 study published in JAMA found that treatments increase coronary artery plaque volume. Additionally, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires manufactures to include a notice on the labeling that states taking testosterone treatments can lead to possible increased risk of heart attacks and strokes. The FDA recommends that patients using testosterone should seek medical attention right away if they have these symptoms: