Make sure that the camera doesn’t switch automatically to the APSC format : when the camera is set to auto switch (aka detecting whether you have mounted an APSC or a FF lens) it will work correctly with FE or E lenses, but may guess wrong with legacy glass that don’t communicate with the body. So set that option to FF.
If that wasn’t the problem, then the culprit may be the adapter. Some adapters made before the introduction of the A7 series were built with the Nex and and APSC format in mind and the opening isn’t enough for FF. It may be enough for tele, but not for wide angle.
Last but not least : some wide angle lenses have a design which was OK for film, but not for digital : the incoming rays of light are striking the sensor at a too oblique angle thus resulting in a lot if smearing and vignetting. Typically, lenses that were made for range finder film bodies are bad performers starting up at 35mm and shorter. This is often the result of symmetrical design. Most Leica M lenses 35mm and shorter are bad performers for instance. You will be luckier with SLR lenses that have a retro focus design.
Also : the defaults/weakness of any lens will get magnified on digital sensors, especially if you have an A7r.