Endocrine system testosterone

There are studies of cell cultures, laboratory animals, wildlife, and accidentally exposed humans that show that environmental chemicals cause a wide range of reproductive, developmental, growth, and behavior effects, and so while "endocrine disruption in humans by pollutant chemicals remains largely undemonstrated, the underlying science is sound and the potential for such effects is real." [37] While compounds that produce estrogenic, androgenic, antiandrogenic, and antithyroid actions have been studied, less is known about interactions with other hormones.

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The levels of hormones in the body can be regulated by several factors. The nervous system can control hormone levels through the action of the hypothalamus and its releasing and inhibiting hormones. For example, TRH produced by the hypothalamus stimulates the anterior pituitary to produce TSH. Tropic hormones provide another level of control for the release of hormones. For example, TSH is a tropic hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce T3 and T4. Nutrition can also control the levels of hormones in the body. For example, the thyroid hormones T3 and T4 require 3 or 4 iodine atoms, respectively, to be produced. In people lacking iodine in their diet, they will fail to produce sufficient levels of thyroid hormones to maintain a healthy metabolic rate. Finally, the number of receptors present in cells can be varied by cells in response to hormones. Cells that are exposed to high levels of hormones for extended periods of time can begin to reduce the number of receptors that they produce, leading to reduced hormonal control of the cell.

Endocrine system testosterone

endocrine system testosterone

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