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"Well-defined reference ranges are at the heart of clinical practice and without them clinicians can make erroneous diagnoses that could lead to patients receiving costly, lifelong treatments that they don't need or deny treatments to those who need them," said Shalender Bhasin, MD, of Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School in Boston, MA and lead author of the study. "Our data establish a reference range for testosterone. These data also show that variations in assays is an important contributor to variation in testosterone levels in cohorts from different geographic regions. Clearly we need standardization in all hormone assays."